How to Train a Chihuahua

how to train a chihuahua

Introduction: Understanding the Chihuahua Personality

Chihuahuas, with their saucy expressions and petite stature, are among the most recognizable breeds worldwide. Despite their small size, they’re known for having huge personalities. These little dogs are often described as being alert, spirited, and confident. They have a renowned reputation for being fiercely loyal to their humans, which can sometimes translate to being overly protective. Their intelligence is notable, and while they’re quick learners, their stubborn streak can sometimes present challenges during training. Moreover, they thrive on close companionship, often forming deep bonds with their families. Recognizing these traits is the first step in understanding how best to approach training your Chihuahua.

The Importance of Early Socialization

Just like with any breed, early socialization is paramount for Chihuahuas. Given their naturally wary nature of strangers and tendency to bond closely with a single person, exposing them to a variety of people, animals, and environments during their puppy months is crucial. This helps them grow into well-adjusted adults.

Start by introducing your Chihuahua to gentle and friendly humans and animals. Positive experiences with various stimuli, such as different sounds, sights, and smells, can reduce fear-driven behaviors in the future. Puppy training classes can be an excellent avenue for controlled socialization. These sessions not only offer a structured environment for learning basic commands but also expose puppies to other dogs and people, promoting healthy interactions.

Frequent outings, such as trips to the park, car rides, or short visits to pet-friendly stores, can also enhance their adaptability. Remember to ensure that all experiences are positive. Reward your Chihuahua with treats and praise for calm behavior, and always be ready to remove them from situations that seem too overwhelming or stressful.

Basic Command Training

Training a Chihuahua in basic commands begins with one crucial tool: positive reinforcement. Chihuahuas respond best to rewards, be it in the form of treats, praise, or playtime.

  • Sit: Hold a treat close to your Chihuahua’s nose, then move your hand upwards. As their head follows the treat, their bottom should lower. Once they’re in a sitting position, say “Sit,” give them the treat, and shower them with praise.
  • Stay: With your Chihuahua in a sit position, open the palm of your hand in front of their face, saying “Stay.” Take a few steps back. If they remain seated, reward them with a treat and praise. Gradually increase the distance over time.
  • Come: With a leash on, crouch to your Chihuahua’s level and say “Come” while gently pulling the leash towards you. When they get to you, reward with a treat and praise.
  • Heel: With your Chihuahua on a leash, start walking. The moment they pull ahead or lag behind, stop walking. Only resume when they return to your side. With consistency, they’ll learn that staying by your side leads to continued movement and exploration.

Always end training sessions on a positive note, even if it means asking a command they’re already proficient in. This ensures your Chihuahua remains eager for the next session, associating training with positive experiences.

Potty Training Tips for Chihuahuas

Chihuahuas, like all breeds, require patience and consistency during the potty training phase. Given their small size, they have smaller bladders and may need to go out more often.

  • Establish a Routine: Like humans, Chihuahuas thrive on routine. Feed them at the same times daily, as this can predictably dictate potty times. Generally, puppies will need to go out first thing in the morning, after meals, and before bedtime.
  • Choose a Designated Spot: Whether it’s a particular corner of the yard or a pee pad in a designated indoor area, consistently take your Chihuahua to the same spot. They’ll soon associate this spot with potty time.
  • React to Accidents with Patience: Accidents are a part of the potty training process. If you catch them in the act, a simple “Oops!” and taking them to their designated spot is enough. Scolding or punishment can instill fear and make the training process more challenging.
  • Celebrate Successes: Every time your Chihuahua uses their designated spot, reward them with praise, a treat, or some playtime.

Addressing Common Behavioral Issues

Chihuahuas, despite their size, can display a range of behavioral issues. Some of the common ones include:

  • Excessive Barking: While barking is a way dogs communicate, excessive barking can be disruptive. Often, this stems from boredom, attention-seeking, or responding to environmental noises. Providing ample mental stimulation, teaching the “Quiet” command, and ensuring they have a fulfilling daily routine can help curb this.
  • Aggression: Due to their small size, Chihuahuas can sometimes display aggression out of fear or when they feel threatened. Early socialization, as mentioned earlier, can help prevent this. If aggressive behaviors persist, consider seeking assistance from a professional dog trainer.
  • Separation Anxiety: Chihuahuas form strong bonds with their owners, and being left alone can be stressful for them. Gradual conditioning to alone-time, creating positive associations with being alone (like a special toy they only get when you’re away), and ensuring they get adequate exercise before you leave can reduce anxiety.

Harness and Leash Training

Given the Chihuahua’s delicate size, safe walking practices are paramount. Instead of a collar, which can put undue pressure on their small trachea, a harness is recommended.

  • Introduce the Harness: Before attempting to put it on, let your Chihuahua sniff and investigate the harness. Reward their curiosity with treats.
  • Gradual Introduction: Initially, have them wear the harness for short durations inside the home. Praise and treat them for staying calm while wearing it.
  • Add the Leash: Once comfortable with the harness, attach the leash. Let them wander around the house with it, so they get used to the feel.
  • Guided Walks: Begin with short walks, ensuring they stay by your side. If they pull or tug, stop walking. They’ll learn that walking calmly ensures continued movement.

With patience and positive reinforcement, your Chihuahua will soon see the harness and leash as gateways to exciting outdoor adventures.

Enrichment and Mental Stimulation

Chihuahuas, like many dogs, need more than just physical exercise; they thrive on mental stimulation too. Keeping their minds active can help reduce undesirable behaviors and provide them with a more enriching life.

  • Toys and Puzzles: Interactive toys and puzzles can challenge your Chihuahua’s intellect. Toys that dispense treats or require problem-solving to get to a reward can keep them engaged for extended periods.
  • Training Sessions: Teaching new commands or tricks can be an excellent way to engage their minds. Even short daily sessions can make a significant difference.
  • Novel Environments: Take your Chihuahua to different places, such as a new park or a pet-friendly store. New sights, smells, and experiences can be mentally stimulating.

Establishing and Maintaining Boundaries

Despite their small size, Chihuahuas need clear boundaries to understand their role within the household.

  • Consistency is Key: Ensure all family members are on the same page about rules. If jumping on the couch is not allowed, this rule should be consistent across all family members and guests.
  • Regular Training Sessions: Reinforcing commands and behaviors regularly ensures that your Chihuahua remembers the rules. Even as they age, occasional training refreshers can be beneficial.
  • Reward-Based Discipline: Instead of punishing undesirable behaviors, redirect and reward the behaviors you want to see. For instance, if your Chihuahua has a habit of barking at the doorbell, train them to go to a designated spot and reward that behavior.


Training a Chihuahua, while challenging at times due to their spirited nature, is a rewarding experience. These diminutive dogs, with their big personalities, have the capacity to learn and adapt, provided they’re given the right guidance. With patience, consistency, and a lot of love, you can ensure that your Chihuahua is well-behaved, mentally stimulated, and most importantly, a happy and integral part of your family.

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